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VOTRE PARTENAIRE
POUR DES RECHERCHES SCIENTIFIQUES

VOTRE PARTENAIRE POUR DES RECHERCHES SCIENTIFIQUES

NOUS SOUTENONS LES INSTITUTIONS SCIENTIFIQUES DU MONDE ENTIER DANS LEURS RECHERCHES

NOUS SOUTENONS LES INSTITUTIONS SCIENTIFIQUES DU MONDE ENTIER DANS LEURS RECHERCHES

ET DE NOMBREUSES AUTRES UNIVERSITÉS ET INSTITUTIONS SCIENTIFIQUES INTERNATIONALES.

ET DE NOMBREUSES AUTRES UNIVERSITÉS ET INSTITUTIONS SCIENTIFIQUES INTERNATIONALES.

NOUS SOUTENONS L'EXCELLENCE DE LA RECHERCHE UNIVERSITAIRE

Un bon nombre de grandes universités et institutions académiques de premier plan construisent leurs projets basés sur nos services et échantillons. Notre réseau de partenaires universitaires comprend entre autres l’Université de Princeton, l’Université de Pennsylvanie, l’Université de Cambridge, l’Université de Leipzig, l’Université de Bochum, l’Université de Mannheim, l’Université de Münster – pour n’en citer que quelques-unes. Plus de 500 institutions universitaires collaborent avec nous. Une expérience approfondie, une qualité d’échantillon parmi les plus élevées du secteur, un soutien individuel permanent, ainsi qu’un chef de projet attitré pour les études actuelles et futures sont de bonnes raisons pour choisir respondi.

NOUS SOUTENONS L'EXCELLENCE DE LA RECHERCHE UNIVERSITAIRE

Un bon nombre de grandes universités et institutions académiques de premier plan construisent leurs projets basés sur nos services et échantillons. Notre réseau de partenaires universitaires comprend entre autres l’Université de Princeton, l’Université de Pennsylvanie, l’Université de Cambridge, l’Université de Leipzig, l’Université de Bochum, l’Université de Mannheim, l’Université de Münster – pour n’en citer que quelques-unes. Plus de 500 institutions universitaires collaborent avec nous. Une expérience approfondie, une qualité d’échantillon parmi les plus élevées du secteur, un soutien individuel permanent, ainsi qu’un chef de projet attitré pour les études actuelles et futures sont de bonnes raisons pour choisir respondi.

EXPÉRIENCE

Nous avons plus de 15 ans d’expérience durant lesquelles nous avons satisfait plus de 2000 clients au niveau international. Beaucoup d’entre eux sont devenus des partenaires à long terme.

QUALITÉ

respondi propose les meilleurs répondants et échantillons, alliant précision et cohérence, ainsi que des taux de réponse élevés et un respect constant des quotas.

SERVICE

Qu’il s’agisse d’échantillonnage, de conseil sur la conception ou de la programmation de questionnaire, de la mise en place technique ou de l’analyse de données, vous aurez à vos côtés un chef de projet dédié, qui vous accompagnera pendant toute la durée du projet.

EXPÉRIENCE

Nous avons plus de 15 ans d’expérience durant lesquelles nous avons satisfait plus de 2000 clients au niveau international. Beaucoup d’entre eux sont devenus des partenaires à long terme.

QUALITÉ

respondi propose les meilleurs répondants et échantillons, alliant précision et cohérence, ainsi que des taux de réponse élevés et un respect constant des quotas.

SERVICE

Qu’il s’agisse d’échantillonnage, de conseil sur la conception ou de la programmation de questionnaire, de la mise en place technique ou de l’analyse de données, vous aurez à vos côtés un chef de projet dédié, qui vous accompagnera pendant toute la durée du projet.

QUE DISENT NOS CLIENTS À PROPOS DE NOTRE SOCIÉTÉ ?

QUE DISENT NOS CLIENTS À PROPOS DE NOTRE SOCIÉTÉ ?

The key thing that sets respondi apart from other online panel research services is the knowledgeable and friendly customer service that respondi provides each step of the way during the data collection process. As a researcher who had a relatively complex longitudinal research design that required the same participants to complete my survey across many different time points, respondi's support team were instrumental in guiding me through the process of collecting this data effectively. I was very happy to gain an excellent data sample for my research and so I highly recommend using respondi.

Richard Morgan, PHD Student at Durham University
The respondi team is an ideal cooperation partner for carrying out sophisticated survey fieldwork in combination with the collection of web tracking data. The communication is straightforward, the conditions flexible and the prices highly competitive. The opportunity to collect high quality data simultaneously in many different countries is also particularly attractive. My research would be much more cumbersome without respondi's support.

Simon Munzert, Assistant Professor of Data Science and Public Policy at Hertie School
For several years, I enjoy working together with respondi to collect data. It is always a pleasure to deal with their representatives as they are open to my specific needs as a researcher. I not only appreciate the good data quality but also the fair pricing when faced with limited budgets.

Dr. Sascha Müller, Postdoctoral Researcher at University of Kassel
Working with respondi allows me to conduct complex research projects in a short amount of time, while also ensuring data quality and enhancing the validity of findings. Their customer service is super friendly and supportive from start to finish.

Nathalie Oexle, Junior Professor in Social Psychiatry at University of Ulm
We have been working for several years with respondi and highly appreciate the uncomplicated cooperation and the fast availability of survey and behavioral data. Especially the online behavioral data has proven to be extremely innovative and a helpful source for many of our projects.

Ruben Bach, Postdoctoral Researcher at University of Mannheim
respondi supported the data collection of my master thesis. The communication was easy and all my questions were answered very quickly. Thanks to the great help of respondi I had reliable and valid data for my analysis.

Katja Wurm, student at University of Applied Sciences Cologne
The Chair for Work and Organizational Psychology at the University of Leipzig has been working for several years with respondi – particularly in order to realise extensive longitudinal studies which are being published in international professional journals. We value the high data quality and the competent and friendly customer service they provide.

Prof. Dr. Hannes Zacher, Chair for Work and Organizational Psychology at Leipzig University

NOUS CROYONS EN LA QUALITÉ.
C'EST POUR CELA QUE NOUS SOMMES CERTIFIÉS ISO ET QUE NOUS NOUS ENGAGEONS DANS LES PRINCIPALES ASSOCIATIONS PROFESSIONNELLES DES ÉTUDES ET DU MARKETING.

NOUS CROYONS EN LA QUALITÉ. C'EST POUR CELA QUE NOUS SOMMES CERTIFIÉS ISO ET QUE NOUS NOUS ENGAGEONS DANS LES PRINCIPALES ASSOCIATIONS PROFESSIONNELLES DES ÉTUDES ET DU MARKETING.

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DÉCOUVREZ QUELQUES PUBLICATIONS PARMI LES NOMBREUSES QUE NOUS AVONS SOUTENUES

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Authors: Ruben L. Bach, Christoph Kern, Ashley Amaya, Florian Keusch, Frauke Kreuter, Jan Hecht, and Jonathan Heinemann

 

Abstract:
A major concern arising from ubiquitous tracking of individuals’ online activity is that algorithms may be trained to predict personal sensitive information, even for users who do not wish to reveal such information. Although previous research has shown that digital trace data can accurately predict sociodemographic characteristics, little is known about the potentials of such data to predict sensitive outcomes. Against this background, we investigate in this article whether we can accurately predict voting behavior, which is considered personal sensitive information in Germany and subject to strict privacy regulations. Using records of web browsing and mobile device usage of about 2,000 online users eligible to vote in the 2017 German federal election combined with survey data from the same individuals, we find that online activities do not predict (self-reported) voting well in this population. These findings add to the debate about users’ limited control over (inaccurate) personal information flows.

 

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Authors: Alvin E. Rotha, and Stephanie W. Wang

 

Abstract:
We study popular attitudes in Germany, Spain, the Philippines, and the United States toward three controversial markets—prostitution, surrogacy, and global kidney exchange (GKE). Of those markets, only prostitution is banned in the United States and the Philippines, and only prostitution is allowed in Germany and Spain. Unlike prostitution, majorities support legalization of surrogacy and GKE in all four countries. So, there is not a simple relation between public support for markets, or bans, and their legal and regulatory status. Because both markets and bans on markets require social support to work well, this sheds light on the prospects for effective regulation of controversial markets.

 

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Authors: Simon Munzert, Peter Selb, Anita Gohdes, Lukas F. Stoetzer and Will Lowe

 

Abstract:
Digital contact tracing apps have been introduced globally as an instrument to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, privacy by design impedes both the evaluation of these tools and the deployment of evidence-based interventions to stimulate uptake. We combine an online panel survey with mobile tracking data to measure the actual usage of Germany’s official contact tracing app and reveal higher uptake rates among respondents with an increased risk of severe illness, but lower rates among those with a heightened risk of exposure to COVID-19. Using a randomized intervention, we show that informative and motivational video messages have very limited effect on uptake. However, findings from a second intervention suggest that even small monetary incentives can strongly increase uptake and help make digital contact tracing a more effective tool.

 

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Authors: Katherine Clayton, Jeremy Ferwerda and Yusaku Horiuchi

 

Abstract:
To what extent does exposure to immigration condition the types of immigrants citizens are willing to admit? Extending the conjoint approach adopted by Hainmueller and Hopkins (Am J Pol Sci 59(3):529–548, 2015), this study investigates whether the admission preferences of French natives vary based on personal exposure to immigration, as proxied by local demographics and self-reported social contact. Methodologically, we propose and apply new methods to compare attribute salience across different subgroups of respondents. We find that although an inflow of immigrants into respondents’ municipalities has a limited influence on how French natives evaluate prospective immigrants, social contact with immigrants matters. Specifically, French natives who do not frequently interact with immigrants are significantly less favorable toward immigrants from non-western countries, and more favorable toward immigrants from western countries. In contrast, natives who report frequent social interactions with immigrants place less weight on nationality as a criterion for immigrant admission. Although scholars have noted an increasing consensus in immigration attitudes across developed democracies, our findings suggest that individual experiences with immigration condition preferences for immigration policy at the national level.

 

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Authors: Joan Barceló and Greg Chih-Hsin Sheen

 

Abstract:
With the spread of COVID-19, more countries now recommend their citizens to wear facemasks in public. The uptake of facemasks, however, remains far from universal in countries where this practice lacks cultural roots. In this paper, we aim to identify the barriers to mask-wearing in Spain, a country with no mask-wearing culture. We conduct one of the first nationally representative surveys (n = 4,000) about this unprecedented public health emergency and identify the profile of citizens who are more resistant to face-masking: young, educated, unconcerned with being infected, and with an introverted personality. Our results further indicate a positive correlation between a social norm of mask-wearing and mask uptake and demonstrate that uptake of facemasks is especially high among the elderly living in localities where mask-wearing behavior is popular. These results are robust when controlling for respondents’ demographics, time spent at home, and occupation fixed effects. Our findings can be useful for policymakers to devise effective programs for improving public compliance.

 

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Authors: Zachary D.  Liscow and Abigail D. Pershing

 

Abstract:
Basic economic theory prescribes that redistribution typically take the form of cash rather than in-kind goods and services, since cash lets the recipient choose how to use the resources, thereby maximizing benefits to the recipient. Notwithstanding this benefit, among the trillions of dollars of annual transfers in the United States, redistribution is mostly—and increasingly—in-kind. We help explain why with novel survey experiments to better-understand Americans’ preferences regarding the structure of government redistribution.
Our survey experiment offers a large, demographically representative sample of respondents a hypothetical choice between a cash transfer and a transfer that can only be spent on a bundle of “necessities.” We make three main points. First, survey respondents overwhelmingly preferred in-kind over cash transfers to the poor. The most important reason for this choice is paternalism: the belief that the poor will not spend cash on the right things. The preference for in-kind was common to a majority of virtually all segments of the general population, though not to a sample of elites. Second, stated preferences suggest that respondents are willing to redistribute considerably more in-kind than in cash. We also surveyed the poor, who preferred receiving cash, but not as strongly as the general population preferred redistributing in-kind. The modesty of this preference among the poor in part comes from a sizable minority that preferred in-kind redistribution, which many anticipated functioning as a self-control mechanism. Third, a randomized treatment explaining the value of choice significantly increased the preference for cash over in-kind, but it did not change the overall preference for in-kind.

 

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Authors: Cornelia Betsch et al.

 

Ziel:
Ziel des Projektes ist es, wiederholt einen Einblick zu erhalten, wie die Bevölkerung die Corona-Pandemie wahrnimmt, wie sich die “psychologische Lage” abzeichnet. Dies soll es erleichtern, Kommunikationsmaßnahmen und die Berichterstattung so auszurichten, um der Bevölkerung korrektes, hilfreiches Wissen anzubieten und Falschinformationen und Aktionismus vorzubeugen. So soll z.B. auch versucht werden, medial stark diskutiertes Verhalten einzuordnen.

Diese Seite soll damit Behörden, Medienvertretern, aber auch der Bevölkerung dazu dienen, die psychologischen Herausforderungen der COVID-19 Epidemie einschätzen zu können und im besten Falle zu bewältigen.

 

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Authors: Sarah Dryhurst, Claudia R. Schneider, John Kerr, Alexandra L. J. Freeman, Gabriel Recchia, Anne Marthe van der Bles, David Spiegelhalter and Sander van der Linden

 

Abstract:
The World Health Organization has declared the rapid spread of COVID19 around the world a global public health emergency. It is well-known that the spread of the disease is influenced by people’s willingness to adopt preventative public health behaviors, which are often associated with public risk perception. In this study, we present the first assessment of public risk perception of COVID-19 around the world using national samples (total N ¼ 6,991) in ten countries across Europe, America, and Asia. We find that although levels of concern are relatively high, they are highest in the UK compared to all other sampled countries. Pooled across countries, personal experience with the virus, individualistic and prosocial values, hearing about the virus from friends and family, trust in government, science, and medical professionals, personal knowledge of government strategy, and personal and collective efficacy were all significant predictors of risk perception. Although there was substantial variability across cultures, individualistic worldviews, personal experience, prosocial values, and social amplification through friends and family in particular were found to be significant determinants in more than half of the countries examined. Risk perception correlated significantly with reported adoption of preventative health behaviors in all ten countries. Implications for effective risk communication are discussed.

 

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Authors: Jon Roozenbeek, Claudia R. Schneider, Sarah Dryhurst, John Kerr, Alexandra L. J. Freeman, Gabriel Recchia, Anne Marthe van der Bles and Sander van der Linden

 

Abstract:
Misinformation about COVID-19 is a major threat to public health. Using five national samples from the UK (n= 1050 and n= 1150), Ireland (n = 700), the USA (n = 700), Spain (n= 700) and Mexico (n= 700), we examine predictors of belief in the most common statements about the virus that contain misinformation. We also investigate the prevalence of belief in COVID-19 misinformation across different countries and the role of belief in such misinformation in predicting relevant health behaviours. We find that while public belief in misinformation about COVID-19 is not particularly common, a substantial proportion views this type of misinformation as highly reliable in each country surveyed. In addition, a small group of participants find common factual information about the virus highly unreliable. We also find that increased susceptibility to misinformation negatively affects people’s self-reported compliance with public health guidance about COVID-19, as well as people’s willingness to get vaccinated against the virus and to recommend the vaccine to vulnerable friends and family. Across all countries surveyed, we find that higher trust in scientists and having higher numeracy skills were associated with lower susceptibility to coronavirus-related misinformation. Taken together, these results demonstrate a clear link between susceptibility to misinformation and both vaccine hesitancy and a reduced likelihood to comply with health guidance measures, and suggest that interventions which aim to improve critical thinking and trust in science may be a promising avenue for future research.

 

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Authors: John R. Kerr, Claudia R. Schneider, Gabriel Recchia, Sarah Dryhurst, Ullrika Sahlin, Carole Dufouil, Pierre Arwidson, Jon Roozenbeek,,  Alexandra L. J. Freeman and Sander van der Linden

 

Abstract:
Understanding the drivers of vaccine acceptance is crucial to the success of COVID-19 mass vaccination campaigns. Across 25 national samples from 12 different countries we examined the psychological correlates of willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine (total N = 25,334), with a focus on risk perception and trust in a number of relevant actors, both in general and specifically regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Male sex, trust in medical and scientific experts and worry about the virus emerge as the most consistent predictors of reported vaccine acceptance across countries. In a subset of samples we show that these effects are robust after controlling for attitudes towards vaccination in general. Our results indicate that the burden of trust largely rests on the shoulders of the scientific and medical community, with implications for how future COVID-19 vaccination information should be communicated to maximize uptake.

 

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Authors: Alberto Alesina, Stefanie Stantcheva and Edoardo Teso

 

Abstract:
Using new cross-country survey and experimental data, we investigate how beliefs about intergenerational mobility affect preferences for redistribution in France, Italy, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Americans are more optimistic than Europeans about social mobility. Our randomized treatment shows pessimistic information about mobility and increases support for redistribution, mostly for “equality of opportunity” policies. We find strong political polarization. Left-wing respondents are more pessimistic about mobility: their preferences for redistribution are correlated with their mobility perceptions; and they support more redistribution after seeing pessimistic information. None of this is true for right-wing respondents, possibly because they see the government as a “problem” and not as the “solution.”

 

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Authors: Alberto Alesina, Armando Miano and Stefanie Stantcheva

 

Abstract:
We design and conduct large-scale surveys and experiments in six countries to investigate how natives perceive immigrants and how these perceptions influence their preferences for redistribution. We find strikingly large misperceptions about the number and characteristics of immigrants: in all countries, respondents greatly overestimate the total number of immigrants, think immigrants are culturally and religiously more distant from them, and are economically weaker — less educated, more unemployed, and more reliant on and favored by government transfers — than is the case. Given the very negative baseline views that respondents have of immigrants, simply making them think about immigration before asking questions about redistribution, in a randomized manner, makes them support less redistribution, including actual donations to charities. Information about the true shares and origins of immigrants is ineffective, and mainly acts as a prime that makes people think about immigrants and reduces their support for redistribution. An anecdote about a « hard working » immigrant is somewhat more effective, suggesting that when it comes to immigration, salience and narratives shape people’s views more deeply than hard facts.

 

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Authors: Ruth Maria Schüler, Judith Niehues and Matthias Diermeier

 

Abstract:
Seit Ausbruch der Corona-Pandemie haben sich in den sozialen Medien verschiedenste Verschwörungserzählungen ausgebreitet. Weiterhin werden traditionelle Medien im Allgemeinen stärker genutzt und als deutlich glaubwürdiger eingeschätzt als soziale Medien. Dies zeigt eine Auswertung der im Sommer 2020 erstmals durchgeführten deutschlandweiten Befragung der Ruhr-Universität Bochum und des Instituts der deutschen Wirtschaft. Allerdings informieren sich junge Menschen unter 30 Jahren immer häufiger in den sozialen Medien über das politische Geschehen. Dies ist besonders vor dem Hintergrund bemerkenswert, dass unter den Nutzern sozialer Medien eine Verschiebung der Deutungshoheit zugunsten sozialer Medien stattfindet und somit kommunikative Parallelgesellschaften entstehen könnten. Denn die Auswertung der Befragungsdaten zeigt, dass die Befragten diejenigen Medienformate als glaubwürdiger einschätzen, welche sie selbst nutzen. Ebenso legt die Analyse offen, dass Nutzer bestimmter Medien wie beispielsweise YouTube und Telegram eher Verschwörungsglauben zuneigen. Auch wenn die Analyse keine kausalen Zusammenhänge zwischen den Größen offenlegen kann, zeigt sie dennoch, dass die Nutzung bestimmter Medienformate mit einer Tendenz zum Verschwörungsglauben einhergeht.

Ein Blick in die USA zeigt, wie die Nutzung von sozialen Medien im Besonderen durch (Noch-)USPräsident Donald Trump die politische Debatte während seiner Amtszeit und den Wahlkampf emotional bestimmt und auch die Verbreitung von Falschmeldungen, so genannten fake news, begünstigt hat. Auch wenn in Deutschland die Glaubwürdigkeit der traditionellen Medien weit höher ist, deuten Analysen auch für Deutschland auf eine zunehmende Bedeutung von Fake News und der wachsenden Verbreitung von Verschwörungsglauben hin.

Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es umso dringlicher die Medienkompetenz, im Besonderen auch der älteren Bevölkerung, welche anders als die „digital natives“ nicht in einer digitalisierten Welt aufgewachsen ist, zu stärken. Zudem ist es gleichermaßen Aufgabe schulischer und politischer Bildung(sträger) aber auch des Journalismus, Diskurse zu ermöglichen und gleichzeitig dabei Fake News einzuordnen und ihre Verbreitung einzudämmen.

 

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Author: Johannes Krause

 

Abstract:

Johannes Krause untersucht, welche Maßnahmen Menschen aufgrund bestehender sozialer Dimensionen, Medienkonsum und Werteinstellungen unternehmen, um ihre eigene körperliche Darstellung nach außen zu kontrollieren und zu determinieren. Mit Hilfe einer Online-Erhebung wird aufgezeigt, welche Rolle diese Faktoren spielen, und anhand von Strukturgleichungsmodellen werden diese Einflussfaktoren quantifiziert. Der interdisziplinäre theoretische Rahmen integriert soziologische Konzepte wie das Habitus-Konzept von Pierre Bourdieu, medienwissenschaftliche Wirkungsansätze in Form der Kultivierungsthese von George Gerbner und die Schwartz-Werte als Persönlichkeitsmerkmale in einem gemeinsamen empirischen Modell.

Der Inhalt
• Was ist Schönheitshandeln und welchen Einfluss hat der Habitus?
• Schönheitshandeln und physische Attraktivität
• Der Habitus, seine Entstehung und seine Auswirkungen auf den Alltag
• Medienkonsum als Einflussfaktor des Schönheitshandelns
Die Zielgruppen
• Dozierende und Studierende der Soziologie, der Empirischen Sozialforschung und der Kommunikationswissenschaften
• Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, Erzieherinnen und Erzieher

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Authors: K. Peren Arin, Juan A. Lacomba, Francisco Lagos, Ana I. Moro-Egido and Marcel Thum

 

Abstract:

We examine the impact of the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and the nationwide movement restrictions on socio-economic attitudes in four European countries (France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom). We conducted large-scale surveys while the pandemic rapidly spread before and after nationwide lockdowns were implemented. We investigate the impact in three different categories of attitudes: i) economic perceptions (economic insecurity and views on globalization); ii) political attitudes (trust in domestic and international institutions, populism and immigration); and iii) social aspects (authoritarianism and loneliness). We find that overall, the pandemic/social-distancing, but not the lockdowns, has increased economic insecurity, loneliness, and acceptance of authoritarianism while decreasing support for globalization. On the bright side, there is a sensible increase in trust in domestic institutions. We also document that the pandemic had heterogeneous and disproportional effects both at the country level and at the demographic group level. In terms of societal groups, our results suggest that the aggregate results are mostly driven by a number of groups, most notably women, families with children, and the labor force.

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Author: Sabrina Schöttle

 

Abstract:

Um Wirkungszusammenhänge im Rahmen der politischen Online-Beteiligung, mit einem Schwerpunkt auf Online-Bürgerbeteiligungsplattformen, aufzuzeigen, werden zunächst ausgewählte uni- und bivariate Analyseergebnisse des Online-Surveys wiedergegeben. Dabei liegt der Fokus einerseits auf Differenzen zwischen den Geschlechtern, andererseits auf Unterschieden zwischen Partizipierenden und bislang Nicht-Partizipierenden. Sofern geschlechterstereotypischen Einstellungen, betrachtet als ein Kondensat von Doing Gender, auf Basis der theoretischen Erwägungen eine Bedeutung zukommt, werden sie in den Analysen berücksichtigt.

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Authors: Christina Leuker, Ralph Hertwig, Ksenija Gumenik, Lukas Maximilian Eggeling, Shahar Hechtlinger, Anastasia Kozyreva, Larissa Samaan and Nadine Fleischhut

 

Abstract:
Am 27. Januar 2020 wird der erste Fall einer Infektion mit dem neuartigen Coronavirus in Deutschland offiziell
bestätigt. Kurz darauf richtet die Regierung einen Krisenstab ein, der Kreis Heinsberg meldet eine steigende Anzahl an Infektionen. Anfang März wird klar, dass das Coronavirus sich auch in Deutschland verbreitet. Es folgen
weitreichende Einschränkungen des öffentlichen und privaten Lebens: Großveranstaltungen werden abgesagt,
Schulschließungen angekündigt, soziale Kontaktbeschränkungen treten in Kraft.
Die Bedrohung ist Anfang März neu, global und schwer abschätzbar. Das Coronavirus dominiert die Medien genauso wie private Gespräche in Deutschland. Die Bevölkerung ist einer beispiellosen Informationsflut, einschließlich Fehlinformationen und Unsicherheiten, ausgesetzt: von täglichen Statistiken zu Infektionen, über Symptome,
Risiken und Verhaltensempfehlungen, bis hin zu persönlichen Berichten, globalen Vergleichen und Maßnahmen,
die das Virus stoppen oder dessen Verbreitung verlangsamen sollen.
Dabei ist unklar, wie die Bevölkerung mit dieser Informationsflut umgegangen ist und wie sich das Informationsverhalten mit dem Rückgang der Infektionszahlen und den Lockerungen der Maßnahmen Anfang Juni veränderte. So musste die Bevölkerung Anfang Juni damit rechnen, dass Risiken sich regional unterscheiden und
Maßnahmen an das aktuelle Infektionsgeschehen angepasst werden. Gleichzeitig sind die wirtschaftlichen und
gesellschaftlichen Folgen der Einschränkungen durch die Pandemie zu bewältigen.
Wir konzentrieren uns im folgenden Bericht auf vier zentrale Fragen: (1) Wie informiert sich die Bevölkerung nach
eigenen Angaben zu Beginn der Lockerungsphase Anfang Juni rund um das Coronavirus und wie hat sich das
Verhalten im Vergleich zu Anfang März verändert? (2) Über welche Themen, aus welchen Gründen und über
welche Quellen informiert sich die Bevölkerung? (3) Wie geht die Bevölkerung mit Fehlinformationen um? (4) Wie
nimmt die Bevölkerung Risiken rund um das Coronavirus wahr und wie gut ist sie informiert? Auch wenn einige
Bevölkerungsgruppen durch eine Infektion stärker gefährdet sind (z.B. Ältere oder Personen mit Vorerkrankungen), ist es wichtig, dass sich alle Bürger*innen ausreichend über Risiken und Maßnahmen informieren, um die
Ausbreitung des Coronavirus zu kontrollieren und Risikogruppen zu schützen.
Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, führte Respondi im Auftrag des Max-Planck-Instituts für Bildungsforschung
zwischen dem 03. und 06. Juni 2020 eine repräsentative Onlineumfrage mit N = 1107 durch. Die aktuelle Bevölkerungsverteilung wurde hinsichtlich Alter (18–69 Jahre), Geschlecht und Bundesland durch Quotenstichproben
berücksichtigt.

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Authors: Martin Kerwer and Tom Rosman

 

Abstract:
Changing epistemic beliefs (beliefs about knowledge and knowing) requires individuals to experience epistemicdoubt (a specific type of cognitive dissonance). To evoke epistemic doubt, many studies rely on presentingdiverging information (conflicting evidence). However, not much is known about how different types of di-verging information and individual differences affect epistemic change. In a preregistered study (N= 509), weinvestigated how interventions based on resolvable/unresolvable diverging information influenced epistemicchange compared to non-diverging information. Moreover, we examined the role of prior epistemic beliefs inthis regard. Multiple-group latent change analyses showed that topic-specific epistemic beliefs prospered in thetwo diverging information groups but not for non-diverging information, while domain-general beliefs remainedlargely unchanged. Although epistemic change was—as expected—more pronounced for individuals with naiveprior beliefs in diverging information groups, detrimental effects existed for advanced prior beliefs. Thesefindings point to the important role of prior beliefs in epistemic change.

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Authors: Birgit Schyns. Jörg Felfe and Jan Schilling

 

Abstract:
There is a growing interest in understanding how follower reactions toward abusive leadership are shaped by followers’ perceptions and attributions. Our studies add to the understanding of the process happening between different levels of leaders’ abusive behavior (from constructive leadership as control, laissez-faire, mild to strong abusive) and follower reactions. Specifically, we focus on the role of perception of abusive supervision as a mediator and attribution as a moderator of the relationship between leader abusive behavior and follower reactions. Follower reactions are defined in terms of exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Two studies using a two point experimental design and vignettes and a cross-sectional field study were conducted. Perception partly mediates the relationship between leader behavior and reactions (Study 1 and 2). Different attributions (intention, control) moderate the relationship between the perception of abusive supervision and reactions in Study 2 and 3. In Study 2, attribution of intentionality of the leader behavior served as a moderator of the relationship between abusive supervision and loyalty, turnover, and voice. Attribution of intentionality reduced the relationship between perception of abusive supervision and reactions. Attribution of intentionality only strengthened negative reactions when milder abusive leadership was perceived. These results were not supported in Study 3. However, in Study 3, attribution to the supervisor’ control served as moderator for loyalty and voice. A stronger relationship between the perception of abusive supervision and reactions emerged for high vs. for low attribution to the supervisor. The differences in results between the studies reflect that in Study 1 and 2 abusive behavior was manipulated and in Study 3 the perception of abusive supervision of actual leaders was assessed. Our findings show that avoidance of abusive supervision should be taken seriously and followers’ perception and suffering is not only due to subjective judgment but reflects actual differences in behavior. The relationships are stronger in the field study, because, in practice, abusive behaviors might be more ambiguous. The research presented here can help leaders to better understand their own and the followers’ role in the perception of and reaction to abusive supervision.

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Authors: Birgit Schyns, Tina Kiefer and Roseanne J. Foti

 

Abstract:
The paper focuses on antecedents of leadership self-efficacy and motivation to lead. We propose that the congruence between how individuals see leaders in general (implicit leadership theories) and how they see themselves (implicit self-theories) on different characteristics, is related to leadership self-efficacy and indirectly to motivation to lead. We surveyed 497 individuals at two time points. For two dimensions of implicit theories, (dynamism and integrity), we found that congruence at a high level is important for leadership self-efficacy. For the dimensions of clever, dynamism, and integrity, we found that leadership self-efficacy was higher when individuals thought that they were higher on these characteristics than leaders in general. For manipulation, neither congruence nor incongruence was related to leadership self-efficacy. Our results further suggest that leadership self-efficacy mediates the significant direct effects of congruence in implicit leadership theories/implicit self-theories and motivation to lead. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the congruence or incongruence of views about leaders in general and the self, and highlight the importance of taking into account the different dimensions of implicit leadership theories/implicit self-theories to be better able to predict motivation to lead.

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Authors: Sabrina Sandner, Eva-Maria Merz, Katja van den Hurk, Marian van Kraaij, Christina Mikkelsen, Henrik Ullum and Michel Clement

 

Abstract:
Background and objectives: A donor health questionnaire (DHQ) aims to ensure the safety of donors and recipients of transfusions or transplantations with blood components, plasma-derived medicinal products, tissues, haematopoietic stem cells and medically assisted reproduction (in short substances of human origin; SoHO). Currently, many different DHQs exist across countries and SoHO. TRANSPOSE (TRANSfusion and transplantation PrOtection and SElection of donors) developed and validated a standardized DHQ to use across countries and SoHO. We tested whether participants understand the questions and provide honest answers.
Methods: For the validation of the standardized DHQ, two demographically representative online surveys were conducted in Germany (N = 3329) and Austria (N = 3432). We surveyed whether participants understood each DHQ question and would answer the questions truthfully. We used experimental settings to test whether there is a difference between mode of administration (print vs. online), the order of the questions (subject vs. chronological order), and the positioning of the general state of health question (beginning vs. end) in the DHQ. Using regression models, we tested the DHQ’s impact on participant mood after completion and on socially desirable response behaviour.
Results: Participants understood the DHQ questions well and would answer them honestly. Nevertheless, the data show different levels of understanding and honesty when responding. Administration mode was the only characteristic that had a significant influence on mood, with the online version resulting in a more favourable mood in comparison to the printed version.
Conclusion: The DHQ was well understood and had a low dishonest tendency. Our findings can serve as an impulse for further research on DHQ criteria across other SoHO and countries.
Key words: social desirability, donor health management, standardized questionnaire.

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Author: Franziska Hoberg

 

Abstract:
Franziska Hoberg stellt sich der Frage, wie Unternehmen im Fall von integritätsbasiertem Vertrauensverlust oder integritätsbasiertem Misstrauen mittels Kommunikation Vertrauen reparieren oder Misstrauen reduzieren. Es gelingt der Autorin, nachzuweisen,  wie mithilfe von zwei Rechenschaftstypen – Eingeständnis und Maßnahme – dieser Vertrauensverlust zurückgewonnen und Misstrauen reduziert werden kann. Ihr Forschungsansatz gründet auf dem Rechenschaftsmodell von Kury (2013) und der Attributionstheorie von Weiner (1985). Diese Arbeit hebt sich durch theoretischen Tiefgang und ihre hohe Praxisrelevanz hervor und verdeutlicht die Bedeutung und Wirkungspotentiale effizienter Krisenkommunikation.

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Authors: Hannes Zacher and Cort W. Rudolph

 

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has considerably impacted many people’s lives. This study examined changes in subjective wellbeing between December 2019 and May 2020 and how stress appraisals and coping strategies relate to individual differences and changes in subjective wellbeing during the early stages of the pandemic. Data were collected at 4 time points from 979 individuals in Germany. Results showed that, on average, life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect did not change significantly between December 2019 and March 2020 but decreased between March and May 2020. Across the latter timespan, individual differences in life satisfaction were positively related to controllability appraisals, active coping, and positive reframing, and negatively related to threat and centrality appraisals and planning. Positive affect was positively related to challenge and controllable-by-self appraisals, active coping, using emotional support, and religion, and negatively related to threat appraisal and humor. Negative affect was positively related to threat and centrality appraisals, denial, substance use, and self-blame, and negatively related to controllability appraisals and emotional support. Contrary to expectations, the effects of stress appraisals and coping strategies on changes in subjective wellbeing were small and mostly nonsignificant. These findings imply that the COVID-19 pandemic represents not only a major medical and economic crisis, but also has a psychological dimension, as it can be associated with declines in key facets of people’s subjective wellbeing. Psychological practitioners should address potential declines in subjective wellbeing with their clients and attempt to enhance clients’ general capability to use functional stress appraisals and effective coping strategies.

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Authors: Hannes Zacher and Cort W. Rudolph

 

Abstract:
This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of individual differences and changes in the perceived stressfulness of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany between early April 2020 and early September 2020. This timeframe includes the first national “lockdown,” the period of “easing” of restrictions, and the summer vacation period. Data were collected from n = 588 full-time employees, who provided baseline data on their personality traits in early December 2019, and then later provided data on perceived stressfulness of the COVID-19 pandemic at five time points, spanning six months. Consistent with expectations based on event and transition theories, results showed that, on average, perceived stressfulness declined between early April 2020 and early September 2020. Moreover, this effect was stronger between early April 2020 and early July 2020. Hypotheses based on the differential reactivity model of personality and stress were partially supported. Emotional stability was associated with lower, and extraversion associated with higher, average levels of perceived stressfulness. Finally, extraversion was associated with increases (i.e., positive trajectories) in perceived stressfulness between early April 2020 and early July 2020 and decreases (i.e., negative trajectories) in perceived stressfulness between early July 2020 and early September 2020.

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Authors: Sebastian Zenker, Erik Braun, Szilvia Gyimóthy

 

Abstract:
Pandemics are affecting tourism in many ways. Being a niche research field before, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic created a strong urgency to develop this topic. For researching pandemic-induced changes in tourist beliefs and travel behaviour, we developed a construct that measures the intra-personal anxiety of travellers (and non-travellers): the Pandemic (COVID-19) Anxiety Travel Scale (PATS), using two large online studies (N = 2180; N = 2062) and including two different cultural contexts (US and Denmark). In Study 1, explorative and confirmative factors analysis confirms a short and easy-to-use 5-item solution, while the presented model adds face validity. Study 2 confirmed the structure (reliability) and tested nomological validity, by putting PATS into the context of different constructs (xenophobia and prevention focus). Although the proposed scale arose from the coronavirus (COVID-19), it is not limited to this specific pandemic and will hopefully prove to be a valuable measurement tool for future pandemics as well.

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DÉCOUVREZ QUELQUES DES NOMBREUSES PUBLICATIONS QUE NOUS AVONS SOUTENUES.

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Authors: Ruben L. Bach, Christoph Kern, Ashley Amaya, Florian Keusch, Frauke Kreuter, Jan Hecht, and Jonathan Heinemann

 

Abstract:
A major concern arising from ubiquitous tracking of individuals’ online activity is that algorithms may be trained to predict personal sensitive information, even for users who do not wish to reveal such information. Although previous research has shown that digital trace data can accurately predict sociodemographic characteristics, little is known about the potentials of such data to predict sensitive outcomes. Against this background, we investigate in this article whether we can accurately predict voting behavior, which is considered personal sensitive information in Germany and subject to strict privacy regulations. Using records of web browsing and mobile device usage of about 2,000 online users eligible to vote in the 2017 German federal election combined with survey data from the same individuals, we find that online activities do not predict (self-reported) voting well in this population. These findings add to the debate about users’ limited control over (inaccurate) personal information flows.

 

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Authors: Alvin E. Rotha, and Stephanie W. Wang

 

Abstract:
We study popular attitudes in Germany, Spain, the Philippines, and the United States toward three controversial markets—prostitution, surrogacy, and global kidney exchange (GKE). Of those markets, only prostitution is banned in the United States and the Philippines, and only prostitution is allowed in Germany and Spain. Unlike prostitution, majorities support legalization of surrogacy and GKE in all four countries. So, there is not a simple relation between public support for markets, or bans, and their legal and regulatory status. Because both markets and bans on markets require social support to work well, this sheds light on the prospects for effective regulation of controversial markets.

 

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Authors: Simon Munzert, Peter Selb, Anita Gohdes, Lukas F. Stoetzer and Will Lowe

 

Abstract:
Digital contact tracing apps have been introduced globally as an instrument to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, privacy by design impedes both the evaluation of these tools and the deployment of evidence-based interventions to stimulate uptake. We combine an online panel survey with mobile tracking data to measure the actual usage of Germany’s official contact tracing app and reveal higher uptake rates among respondents with an increased risk of severe illness, but lower rates among those with a heightened risk of exposure to COVID-19. Using a randomized intervention, we show that informative and motivational video messages have very limited effect on uptake. However, findings from a second intervention suggest that even small monetary incentives can strongly increase uptake and help make digital contact tracing a more effective tool.

 

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Authors: Katherine Clayton, Jeremy Ferwerda and Yusaku Horiuchi

 

Abstract:
To what extent does exposure to immigration condition the types of immigrants citizens are willing to admit? Extending the conjoint approach adopted by Hainmueller and Hopkins (Am J Pol Sci 59(3):529–548, 2015), this study investigates whether the admission preferences of French natives vary based on personal exposure to immigration, as proxied by local demographics and self-reported social contact. Methodologically, we propose and apply new methods to compare attribute salience across different subgroups of respondents. We find that although an inflow of immigrants into respondents’ municipalities has a limited influence on how French natives evaluate prospective immigrants, social contact with immigrants matters. Specifically, French natives who do not frequently interact with immigrants are significantly less favorable toward immigrants from non-western countries, and more favorable toward immigrants from western countries. In contrast, natives who report frequent social interactions with immigrants place less weight on nationality as a criterion for immigrant admission. Although scholars have noted an increasing consensus in immigration attitudes across developed democracies, our findings suggest that individual experiences with immigration condition preferences for immigration policy at the national level.

 

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Authors: Joan Barceló and Greg Chih-Hsin Sheen

 

Abstract:
With the spread of COVID-19, more countries now recommend their citizens to wear facemasks in public. The uptake of facemasks, however, remains far from universal in countries where this practice lacks cultural roots. In this paper, we aim to identify the barriers to mask-wearing in Spain, a country with no mask-wearing culture. We conduct one of the first nationally representative surveys (n = 4,000) about this unprecedented public health emergency and identify the profile of citizens who are more resistant to face-masking: young, educated, unconcerned with being infected, and with an introverted personality. Our results further indicate a positive correlation between a social norm of mask-wearing and mask uptake and demonstrate that uptake of facemasks is especially high among the elderly living in localities where mask-wearing behavior is popular. These results are robust when controlling for respondents’ demographics, time spent at home, and occupation fixed effects. Our findings can be useful for policymakers to devise effective programs for improving public compliance.

 

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Authors: Zachary D.  Liscow and Abigail D. Pershing

 

Abstract:
Basic economic theory prescribes that redistribution typically take the form of cash rather than in-kind goods and services, since cash lets the recipient choose how to use the resources, thereby maximizing benefits to the recipient. Notwithstanding this benefit, among the trillions of dollars of annual transfers in the United States, redistribution is mostly—and increasingly—in-kind. We help explain why with novel survey experiments to better-understand Americans’ preferences regarding the structure of government redistribution.
Our survey experiment offers a large, demographically representative sample of respondents a hypothetical choice between a cash transfer and a transfer that can only be spent on a bundle of “necessities.” We make three main points. First, survey respondents overwhelmingly preferred in-kind over cash transfers to the poor. The most important reason for this choice is paternalism: the belief that the poor will not spend cash on the right things. The preference for in-kind was common to a majority of virtually all segments of the general population, though not to a sample of elites. Second, stated preferences suggest that respondents are willing to redistribute considerably more in-kind than in cash. We also surveyed the poor, who preferred receiving cash, but not as strongly as the general population preferred redistributing in-kind. The modesty of this preference among the poor in part comes from a sizable minority that preferred in-kind redistribution, which many anticipated functioning as a self-control mechanism. Third, a randomized treatment explaining the value of choice significantly increased the preference for cash over in-kind, but it did not change the overall preference for in-kind.

 

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Authors: Cornelia Betsch et al.

 

Ziel:
Ziel des Projektes ist es, wiederholt einen Einblick zu erhalten, wie die Bevölkerung die Corona-Pandemie wahrnimmt, wie sich die “psychologische Lage” abzeichnet. Dies soll es erleichtern, Kommunikationsmaßnahmen und die Berichterstattung so auszurichten, um der Bevölkerung korrektes, hilfreiches Wissen anzubieten und Falschinformationen und Aktionismus vorzubeugen. So soll z.B. auch versucht werden, medial stark diskutiertes Verhalten einzuordnen.

Diese Seite soll damit Behörden, Medienvertretern, aber auch der Bevölkerung dazu dienen, die psychologischen Herausforderungen der COVID-19 Epidemie einschätzen zu können und im besten Falle zu bewältigen.

 

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Authors: Sarah Dryhurst, Claudia R. Schneider, John Kerr, Alexandra L. J. Freeman, Gabriel Recchia, Anne Marthe van der Bles, David Spiegelhalter and Sander van der Linden

 

Abstract:
The World Health Organization has declared the rapid spread of COVID19 around the world a global public health emergency. It is well-known that the spread of the disease is influenced by people’s willingness to adopt preventative public health behaviors, which are often associated with public risk perception. In this study, we present the first assessment of public risk perception of COVID-19 around the world using national samples (total N ¼ 6,991) in ten countries across Europe, America, and Asia. We find that although levels of concern are relatively high, they are highest in the UK compared to all other sampled countries. Pooled across countries, personal experience with the virus, individualistic and prosocial values, hearing about the virus from friends and family, trust in government, science, and medical professionals, personal knowledge of government strategy, and personal and collective efficacy were all significant predictors of risk perception. Although there was substantial variability across cultures, individualistic worldviews, personal experience, prosocial values, and social amplification through friends and family in particular were found to be significant determinants in more than half of the countries examined. Risk perception correlated significantly with reported adoption of preventative health behaviors in all ten countries. Implications for effective risk communication are discussed.

 

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Authors: Jon Roozenbeek, Claudia R. Schneider, Sarah Dryhurst, John Kerr, Alexandra L. J. Freeman, Gabriel Recchia, Anne Marthe van der Bles and Sander van der Linden

 

Abstract:
Misinformation about COVID-19 is a major threat to public health. Using five national samples from the UK (n= 1050 and n= 1150), Ireland (n = 700), the USA (n = 700), Spain (n= 700) and Mexico (n= 700), we examine predictors of belief in the most common statements about the virus that contain misinformation. We also investigate the prevalence of belief in COVID-19 misinformation across different countries and the role of belief in such misinformation in predicting relevant health behaviours. We find that while public belief in misinformation about COVID-19 is not particularly common, a substantial proportion views this type of misinformation as highly reliable in each country surveyed. In addition, a small group of participants find common factual information about the virus highly unreliable. We also find that increased susceptibility to misinformation negatively affects people’s self-reported compliance with public health guidance about COVID-19, as well as people’s willingness to get vaccinated against the virus and to recommend the vaccine to vulnerable friends and family. Across all countries surveyed, we find that higher trust in scientists and having higher numeracy skills were associated with lower susceptibility to coronavirus-related misinformation. Taken together, these results demonstrate a clear link between susceptibility to misinformation and both vaccine hesitancy and a reduced likelihood to comply with health guidance measures, and suggest that interventions which aim to improve critical thinking and trust in science may be a promising avenue for future research.

 

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Authors: John R. Kerr, Claudia R. Schneider, Gabriel Recchia, Sarah Dryhurst, Ullrika Sahlin, Carole Dufouil, Pierre Arwidson, Jon Roozenbeek,,  Alexandra L. J. Freeman and Sander van der Linden

 

Abstract:
Understanding the drivers of vaccine acceptance is crucial to the success of COVID-19 mass vaccination campaigns. Across 25 national samples from 12 different countries we examined the psychological correlates of willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine (total N = 25,334), with a focus on risk perception and trust in a number of relevant actors, both in general and specifically regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Male sex, trust in medical and scientific experts and worry about the virus emerge as the most consistent predictors of reported vaccine acceptance across countries. In a subset of samples we show that these effects are robust after controlling for attitudes towards vaccination in general. Our results indicate that the burden of trust largely rests on the shoulders of the scientific and medical community, with implications for how future COVID-19 vaccination information should be communicated to maximize uptake.

 

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Authors: Alberto Alesina, Stefanie Stantcheva and Edoardo Teso

 

Abstract:
Using new cross-country survey and experimental data, we investigate how beliefs about intergenerational mobility affect preferences for redistribution in France, Italy, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Americans are more optimistic than Europeans about social mobility. Our randomized treatment shows pessimistic information about mobility and increases support for redistribution, mostly for “equality of opportunity” policies. We find strong political polarization. Left-wing respondents are more pessimistic about mobility: their preferences for redistribution are correlated with their mobility perceptions; and they support more redistribution after seeing pessimistic information. None of this is true for right-wing respondents, possibly because they see the government as a “problem” and not as the “solution.”

 

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Authors: Alberto Alesina, Armando Miano and Stefanie Stantcheva

 

Abstract:
We design and conduct large-scale surveys and experiments in six countries to investigate how natives perceive immigrants and how these perceptions influence their preferences for redistribution. We find strikingly large misperceptions about the number and characteristics of immigrants: in all countries, respondents greatly overestimate the total number of immigrants, think immigrants are culturally and religiously more distant from them, and are economically weaker — less educated, more unemployed, and more reliant on and favored by government transfers — than is the case. Given the very negative baseline views that respondents have of immigrants, simply making them think about immigration before asking questions about redistribution, in a randomized manner, makes them support less redistribution, including actual donations to charities. Information about the true shares and origins of immigrants is ineffective, and mainly acts as a prime that makes people think about immigrants and reduces their support for redistribution. An anecdote about a « hard working » immigrant is somewhat more effective, suggesting that when it comes to immigration, salience and narratives shape people’s views more deeply than hard facts.

 

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Authors: Ruth Maria Schüler, Judith Niehues and Matthias Diermeier

 

Abstract:
Seit Ausbruch der Corona-Pandemie haben sich in den sozialen Medien verschiedenste Verschwörungserzählungen ausgebreitet. Weiterhin werden traditionelle Medien im Allgemeinen stärker genutzt und als deutlich glaubwürdiger eingeschätzt als soziale Medien. Dies zeigt eine Auswertung der im Sommer 2020 erstmals durchgeführten deutschlandweiten Befragung der Ruhr-Universität Bochum und des Instituts der deutschen Wirtschaft. Allerdings informieren sich junge Menschen unter 30 Jahren immer häufiger in den sozialen Medien über das politische Geschehen. Dies ist besonders vor dem Hintergrund bemerkenswert, dass unter den Nutzern sozialer Medien eine Verschiebung der Deutungshoheit zugunsten sozialer Medien stattfindet und somit kommunikative Parallelgesellschaften entstehen könnten. Denn die Auswertung der Befragungsdaten zeigt, dass die Befragten diejenigen Medienformate als glaubwürdiger einschätzen, welche sie selbst nutzen. Ebenso legt die Analyse offen, dass Nutzer bestimmter Medien wie beispielsweise YouTube und Telegram eher Verschwörungsglauben zuneigen. Auch wenn die Analyse keine kausalen Zusammenhänge zwischen den Größen offenlegen kann, zeigt sie dennoch, dass die Nutzung bestimmter Medienformate mit einer Tendenz zum Verschwörungsglauben einhergeht.

Ein Blick in die USA zeigt, wie die Nutzung von sozialen Medien im Besonderen durch (Noch-)USPräsident Donald Trump die politische Debatte während seiner Amtszeit und den Wahlkampf emotional bestimmt und auch die Verbreitung von Falschmeldungen, so genannten fake news, begünstigt hat. Auch wenn in Deutschland die Glaubwürdigkeit der traditionellen Medien weit höher ist, deuten Analysen auch für Deutschland auf eine zunehmende Bedeutung von Fake News und der wachsenden Verbreitung von Verschwörungsglauben hin.

Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es umso dringlicher die Medienkompetenz, im Besonderen auch der älteren Bevölkerung, welche anders als die „digital natives“ nicht in einer digitalisierten Welt aufgewachsen ist, zu stärken. Zudem ist es gleichermaßen Aufgabe schulischer und politischer Bildung(sträger) aber auch des Journalismus, Diskurse zu ermöglichen und gleichzeitig dabei Fake News einzuordnen und ihre Verbreitung einzudämmen.

 

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Author: Johannes Krause

 

Abstract:

Johannes Krause untersucht, welche Maßnahmen Menschen aufgrund bestehender sozialer Dimensionen, Medienkonsum und Werteinstellungen unternehmen, um ihre eigene körperliche Darstellung nach außen zu kontrollieren und zu determinieren. Mit Hilfe einer Online-Erhebung wird aufgezeigt, welche Rolle diese Faktoren spielen, und anhand von Strukturgleichungsmodellen werden diese Einflussfaktoren quantifiziert. Der interdisziplinäre theoretische Rahmen integriert soziologische Konzepte wie das Habitus-Konzept von Pierre Bourdieu, medienwissenschaftliche Wirkungsansätze in Form der Kultivierungsthese von George Gerbner und die Schwartz-Werte als Persönlichkeitsmerkmale in einem gemeinsamen empirischen Modell.

Der Inhalt
• Was ist Schönheitshandeln und welchen Einfluss hat der Habitus?
• Schönheitshandeln und physische Attraktivität
• Der Habitus, seine Entstehung und seine Auswirkungen auf den Alltag
• Medienkonsum als Einflussfaktor des Schönheitshandelns
Die Zielgruppen
• Dozierende und Studierende der Soziologie, der Empirischen Sozialforschung und der Kommunikationswissenschaften
• Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, Erzieherinnen und Erzieher

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Authors: K. Peren Arin, Juan A. Lacomba, Francisco Lagos, Ana I. Moro-Egido and Marcel Thum

 

Abstract:

We examine the impact of the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and the nationwide movement restrictions on socio-economic attitudes in four European countries (France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom). We conducted large-scale surveys while the pandemic rapidly spread before and after nationwide lockdowns were implemented. We investigate the impact in three different categories of attitudes: i) economic perceptions (economic insecurity and views on globalization); ii) political attitudes (trust in domestic and international institutions, populism and immigration); and iii) social aspects (authoritarianism and loneliness). We find that overall, the pandemic/social-distancing, but not the lockdowns, has increased economic insecurity, loneliness, and acceptance of authoritarianism while decreasing support for globalization. On the bright side, there is a sensible increase in trust in domestic institutions. We also document that the pandemic had heterogeneous and disproportional effects both at the country level and at the demographic group level. In terms of societal groups, our results suggest that the aggregate results are mostly driven by a number of groups, most notably women, families with children, and the labor force.

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Author: Sabrina Schöttle

 

Abstract:

Um Wirkungszusammenhänge im Rahmen der politischen Online-Beteiligung, mit einem Schwerpunkt auf Online-Bürgerbeteiligungsplattformen, aufzuzeigen, werden zunächst ausgewählte uni- und bivariate Analyseergebnisse des Online-Surveys wiedergegeben. Dabei liegt der Fokus einerseits auf Differenzen zwischen den Geschlechtern, andererseits auf Unterschieden zwischen Partizipierenden und bislang Nicht-Partizipierenden. Sofern geschlechterstereotypischen Einstellungen, betrachtet als ein Kondensat von Doing Gender, auf Basis der theoretischen Erwägungen eine Bedeutung zukommt, werden sie in den Analysen berücksichtigt.

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Authors: Christina Leuker, Ralph Hertwig, Ksenija Gumenik, Lukas Maximilian Eggeling, Shahar Hechtlinger, Anastasia Kozyreva, Larissa Samaan and Nadine Fleischhut

 

Abstract:
Am 27. Januar 2020 wird der erste Fall einer Infektion mit dem neuartigen Coronavirus in Deutschland offiziell
bestätigt. Kurz darauf richtet die Regierung einen Krisenstab ein, der Kreis Heinsberg meldet eine steigende Anzahl an Infektionen. Anfang März wird klar, dass das Coronavirus sich auch in Deutschland verbreitet. Es folgen
weitreichende Einschränkungen des öffentlichen und privaten Lebens: Großveranstaltungen werden abgesagt,
Schulschließungen angekündigt, soziale Kontaktbeschränkungen treten in Kraft.
Die Bedrohung ist Anfang März neu, global und schwer abschätzbar. Das Coronavirus dominiert die Medien genauso wie private Gespräche in Deutschland. Die Bevölkerung ist einer beispiellosen Informationsflut, einschließlich Fehlinformationen und Unsicherheiten, ausgesetzt: von täglichen Statistiken zu Infektionen, über Symptome,
Risiken und Verhaltensempfehlungen, bis hin zu persönlichen Berichten, globalen Vergleichen und Maßnahmen,
die das Virus stoppen oder dessen Verbreitung verlangsamen sollen.
Dabei ist unklar, wie die Bevölkerung mit dieser Informationsflut umgegangen ist und wie sich das Informationsverhalten mit dem Rückgang der Infektionszahlen und den Lockerungen der Maßnahmen Anfang Juni veränderte. So musste die Bevölkerung Anfang Juni damit rechnen, dass Risiken sich regional unterscheiden und
Maßnahmen an das aktuelle Infektionsgeschehen angepasst werden. Gleichzeitig sind die wirtschaftlichen und
gesellschaftlichen Folgen der Einschränkungen durch die Pandemie zu bewältigen.
Wir konzentrieren uns im folgenden Bericht auf vier zentrale Fragen: (1) Wie informiert sich die Bevölkerung nach
eigenen Angaben zu Beginn der Lockerungsphase Anfang Juni rund um das Coronavirus und wie hat sich das
Verhalten im Vergleich zu Anfang März verändert? (2) Über welche Themen, aus welchen Gründen und über
welche Quellen informiert sich die Bevölkerung? (3) Wie geht die Bevölkerung mit Fehlinformationen um? (4) Wie
nimmt die Bevölkerung Risiken rund um das Coronavirus wahr und wie gut ist sie informiert? Auch wenn einige
Bevölkerungsgruppen durch eine Infektion stärker gefährdet sind (z.B. Ältere oder Personen mit Vorerkrankungen), ist es wichtig, dass sich alle Bürger*innen ausreichend über Risiken und Maßnahmen informieren, um die
Ausbreitung des Coronavirus zu kontrollieren und Risikogruppen zu schützen.
Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, führte Respondi im Auftrag des Max-Planck-Instituts für Bildungsforschung
zwischen dem 03. und 06. Juni 2020 eine repräsentative Onlineumfrage mit N = 1107 durch. Die aktuelle Bevölkerungsverteilung wurde hinsichtlich Alter (18–69 Jahre), Geschlecht und Bundesland durch Quotenstichproben
berücksichtigt.

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Authors: Martin Kerwer and Tom Rosman

 

Abstract:
Changing epistemic beliefs (beliefs about knowledge and knowing) requires individuals to experience epistemicdoubt (a specific type of cognitive dissonance). To evoke epistemic doubt, many studies rely on presentingdiverging information (conflicting evidence). However, not much is known about how different types of di-verging information and individual differences affect epistemic change. In a preregistered study (N= 509), weinvestigated how interventions based on resolvable/unresolvable diverging information influenced epistemicchange compared to non-diverging information. Moreover, we examined the role of prior epistemic beliefs inthis regard. Multiple-group latent change analyses showed that topic-specific epistemic beliefs prospered in thetwo diverging information groups but not for non-diverging information, while domain-general beliefs remainedlargely unchanged. Although epistemic change was—as expected—more pronounced for individuals with naiveprior beliefs in diverging information groups, detrimental effects existed for advanced prior beliefs. Thesefindings point to the important role of prior beliefs in epistemic change.

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Authors: Birgit Schyns. Jörg Felfe and Jan Schilling

 

Abstract:
There is a growing interest in understanding how follower reactions toward abusive leadership are shaped by followers’ perceptions and attributions. Our studies add to the understanding of the process happening between different levels of leaders’ abusive behavior (from constructive leadership as control, laissez-faire, mild to strong abusive) and follower reactions. Specifically, we focus on the role of perception of abusive supervision as a mediator and attribution as a moderator of the relationship between leader abusive behavior and follower reactions. Follower reactions are defined in terms of exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Two studies using a two point experimental design and vignettes and a cross-sectional field study were conducted. Perception partly mediates the relationship between leader behavior and reactions (Study 1 and 2). Different attributions (intention, control) moderate the relationship between the perception of abusive supervision and reactions in Study 2 and 3. In Study 2, attribution of intentionality of the leader behavior served as a moderator of the relationship between abusive supervision and loyalty, turnover, and voice. Attribution of intentionality reduced the relationship between perception of abusive supervision and reactions. Attribution of intentionality only strengthened negative reactions when milder abusive leadership was perceived. These results were not supported in Study 3. However, in Study 3, attribution to the supervisor’ control served as moderator for loyalty and voice. A stronger relationship between the perception of abusive supervision and reactions emerged for high vs. for low attribution to the supervisor. The differences in results between the studies reflect that in Study 1 and 2 abusive behavior was manipulated and in Study 3 the perception of abusive supervision of actual leaders was assessed. Our findings show that avoidance of abusive supervision should be taken seriously and followers’ perception and suffering is not only due to subjective judgment but reflects actual differences in behavior. The relationships are stronger in the field study, because, in practice, abusive behaviors might be more ambiguous. The research presented here can help leaders to better understand their own and the followers’ role in the perception of and reaction to abusive supervision.

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Authors: Birgit Schyns, Tina Kiefer and Roseanne J. Foti

 

Abstract:
The paper focuses on antecedents of leadership self-efficacy and motivation to lead. We propose that the congruence between how individuals see leaders in general (implicit leadership theories) and how they see themselves (implicit self-theories) on different characteristics, is related to leadership self-efficacy and indirectly to motivation to lead. We surveyed 497 individuals at two time points. For two dimensions of implicit theories, (dynamism and integrity), we found that congruence at a high level is important for leadership self-efficacy. For the dimensions of clever, dynamism, and integrity, we found that leadership self-efficacy was higher when individuals thought that they were higher on these characteristics than leaders in general. For manipulation, neither congruence nor incongruence was related to leadership self-efficacy. Our results further suggest that leadership self-efficacy mediates the significant direct effects of congruence in implicit leadership theories/implicit self-theories and motivation to lead. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the congruence or incongruence of views about leaders in general and the self, and highlight the importance of taking into account the different dimensions of implicit leadership theories/implicit self-theories to be better able to predict motivation to lead.

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Authors: Sabrina Sandner, Eva-Maria Merz, Katja van den Hurk, Marian van Kraaij, Christina Mikkelsen, Henrik Ullum and Michel Clement

 

Abstract:
Background and objectives: A donor health questionnaire (DHQ) aims to ensure the safety of donors and recipients of transfusions or transplantations with blood components, plasma-derived medicinal products, tissues, haematopoietic stem cells and medically assisted reproduction (in short substances of human origin; SoHO). Currently, many different DHQs exist across countries and SoHO. TRANSPOSE (TRANSfusion and transplantation PrOtection and SElection of donors) developed and validated a standardized DHQ to use across countries and SoHO. We tested whether participants understand the questions and provide honest answers.
Methods: For the validation of the standardized DHQ, two demographically representative online surveys were conducted in Germany (N = 3329) and Austria (N = 3432). We surveyed whether participants understood each DHQ question and would answer the questions truthfully. We used experimental settings to test whether there is a difference between mode of administration (print vs. online), the order of the questions (subject vs. chronological order), and the positioning of the general state of health question (beginning vs. end) in the DHQ. Using regression models, we tested the DHQ’s impact on participant mood after completion and on socially desirable response behaviour.
Results: Participants understood the DHQ questions well and would answer them honestly. Nevertheless, the data show different levels of understanding and honesty when responding. Administration mode was the only characteristic that had a significant influence on mood, with the online version resulting in a more favourable mood in comparison to the printed version.
Conclusion: The DHQ was well understood and had a low dishonest tendency. Our findings can serve as an impulse for further research on DHQ criteria across other SoHO and countries.
Key words: social desirability, donor health management, standardized questionnaire.

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Author: Franziska Hoberg

 

Abstract:
Franziska Hoberg stellt sich der Frage, wie Unternehmen im Fall von integritätsbasiertem Vertrauensverlust oder integritätsbasiertem Misstrauen mittels Kommunikation Vertrauen reparieren oder Misstrauen reduzieren. Es gelingt der Autorin, nachzuweisen,  wie mithilfe von zwei Rechenschaftstypen – Eingeständnis und Maßnahme – dieser Vertrauensverlust zurückgewonnen und Misstrauen reduziert werden kann. Ihr Forschungsansatz gründet auf dem Rechenschaftsmodell von Kury (2013) und der Attributionstheorie von Weiner (1985). Diese Arbeit hebt sich durch theoretischen Tiefgang und ihre hohe Praxisrelevanz hervor und verdeutlicht die Bedeutung und Wirkungspotentiale effizienter Krisenkommunikation.

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Authors: Hannes Zacher and Cort W. Rudolph

 

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The COVID-19 pandemic has considerably impacted many people’s lives. This study examined changes in subjective wellbeing between December 2019 and May 2020 and how stress appraisals and coping strategies relate to individual differences and changes in subjective wellbeing during the early stages of the pandemic. Data were collected at 4 time points from 979 individuals in Germany. Results showed that, on average, life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect did not change significantly between December 2019 and March 2020 but decreased between March and May 2020. Across the latter timespan, individual differences in life satisfaction were positively related to controllability appraisals, active coping, and positive reframing, and negatively related to threat and centrality appraisals and planning. Positive affect was positively related to challenge and controllable-by-self appraisals, active coping, using emotional support, and religion, and negatively related to threat appraisal and humor. Negative affect was positively related to threat and centrality appraisals, denial, substance use, and self-blame, and negatively related to controllability appraisals and emotional support. Contrary to expectations, the effects of stress appraisals and coping strategies on changes in subjective wellbeing were small and mostly nonsignificant. These findings imply that the COVID-19 pandemic represents not only a major medical and economic crisis, but also has a psychological dimension, as it can be associated with declines in key facets of people’s subjective wellbeing. Psychological practitioners should address potential declines in subjective wellbeing with their clients and attempt to enhance clients’ general capability to use functional stress appraisals and effective coping strategies.

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Authors: Hannes Zacher and Cort W. Rudolph

 

Abstract:
This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of individual differences and changes in the perceived stressfulness of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany between early April 2020 and early September 2020. This timeframe includes the first national “lockdown,” the period of “easing” of restrictions, and the summer vacation period. Data were collected from n = 588 full-time employees, who provided baseline data on their personality traits in early December 2019, and then later provided data on perceived stressfulness of the COVID-19 pandemic at five time points, spanning six months. Consistent with expectations based on event and transition theories, results showed that, on average, perceived stressfulness declined between early April 2020 and early September 2020. Moreover, this effect was stronger between early April 2020 and early July 2020. Hypotheses based on the differential reactivity model of personality and stress were partially supported. Emotional stability was associated with lower, and extraversion associated with higher, average levels of perceived stressfulness. Finally, extraversion was associated with increases (i.e., positive trajectories) in perceived stressfulness between early April 2020 and early July 2020 and decreases (i.e., negative trajectories) in perceived stressfulness between early July 2020 and early September 2020.

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Authors: Sebastian Zenker, Erik Braun, Szilvia Gyimóthy

 

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Pandemics are affecting tourism in many ways. Being a niche research field before, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic created a strong urgency to develop this topic. For researching pandemic-induced changes in tourist beliefs and travel behaviour, we developed a construct that measures the intra-personal anxiety of travellers (and non-travellers): the Pandemic (COVID-19) Anxiety Travel Scale (PATS), using two large online studies (N = 2180; N = 2062) and including two different cultural contexts (US and Denmark). In Study 1, explorative and confirmative factors analysis confirms a short and easy-to-use 5-item solution, while the presented model adds face validity. Study 2 confirmed the structure (reliability) and tested nomological validity, by putting PATS into the context of different constructs (xenophobia and prevention focus). Although the proposed scale arose from the coronavirus (COVID-19), it is not limited to this specific pandemic and will hopefully prove to be a valuable measurement tool for future pandemics as well.

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